THE CHYPRE ACCORDS
By Andrej Babicky, Natural Perfumer Expert
The world of Natural perfumery is a fascinating one, with a rich history and an abundance of different scents and notes to explore.
One of the most iconic and well-known olfactory families is the Chypre family, named after the French word for the island of Cyprus. This island has a long history of association with perfumery, and it was once at the center of the perfume trade in the Orient, with its gloves scented with oak moss and the famous Oiselets de Chypre (Chypre Birds).
The forests of the Copper island (currently Cyprus) and its oak mosses, its Henna (Kypros), rose and iris oils, ointment boilers contributed to the fame of its perfumers. Their names were to the Master Perfumers: the ‘Kupirijo’ or ‘Cypriots’.
Historically, perfumes were considered a luxury item for the elite and their distribution was limited. However, this all changed in 1917 with the launch of François Coty's Chypre. Coty's Chypre had a significant impact on the perfumery industry and succeeded in remarkable publicity, giving a name to the whole olfactory family.
The Chypre accord, which is the core of a Chypre perfume, is based around bergamot, labdanum, floral notes, and oakmoss.
These different components work together to build the architecture of a perfume and define its main theme. The accord is then enriched by other notes, which are the facets of the perfume.
These fragrances are known for their intense base notes that can bring to mind scents of undergrowth and woods.
One of the most interesting things about the Chypre family is its adaptability to various interpretations. This allows natural perfumers to create unusual fragrances that are truly one-of-a-kind. The mysterious and charismatic character of natural Chypre fragrances makes them captivating and alluring, and it is this quality that has made them so popular over the years.
In addition to its adaptability, the Chypre family is known for its ability to evoke emotions and memories. The scents are able to transport us back in time and bring up memories that we had forgotten about. This is why Chypre fragrances are considered timeless and classic, and continue to be popular to this day.
The rich history of perfumery on the island of Cyprus and the impact of François Coty's Chypre perfume continue to influence the perfumery industry to this day.
The chypre family is a fascinating and iconic olfactory family that has a rich history and a wide range of scents and notes to explore. From the mysterious and captivating classic chypre fragrances to the more androgynous green chypres, or joyful fruity facets, there is something for everyone.
In our masterclasses, we will delve into the world of natural perfumery and the creative process that attendees will experience.
We will discover the different olfactory families and facets, their history, and some curiosities. We will also discuss the most representative fragrances and dedicate ourselves to the creation of fragrances and accords focused on a single olfactory family. These masterclasses are designed for individuals who have already followed the path of natural perfumery and for those who wish to deepen their knowledge in this field.
Starting from February with the Chypre masterclass, new masterclasses will be made available every month, providing an in-depth look at the practical aspect of creation and revealing the mysteries of natural perfumery. We will be inspired and amazed by the power of natural perfumery and the creative potential it holds.
I encourage you to join us in these masterclasses and experience the art and science of natural perfumery for yourself.
The masterclasses will provide a unique opportunity to learn, to explore your own creativity and sense of smell. The Chypre family of fragrances is just one of many olfactory families that we will be exploring in these classes, so even if Chypre is not your favorite family, you will have the opportunity to discover new fragrances and learn about different olfactory families.
So, come and join us in this journey of discovery and creation, and let us immerse ourselves in the world of natural perfumery together.
AROMACHOLOGY, SCENTS AND EMOTIONS
By Françoise Rapp, Certified Natural Perfumer, Aromatherapist and Aromachologist
The term aromachology appeared in the 1980s and it describes the science of the phenomenon that links odors to behavior.
We became aware at that moment of this subtle and profound power and above all, how it affects our daily life in all its aspects, from the intimate to the spiritual and the professional. For almost 26 years, I have been composing natural perfumes taking this dimension into account because it seems to me to be inseparable from the mission of the natural perfumer. My training as a naturopath has meant that I have also worked all these years with patients and therefore have seen what the positive effects of smell on emotions are. When we understand the role that smell plays on inner well-being, we understand the need to compose a natural perfume and its olfactory quality as well because it acts powerfully on the sensory memory.
The olfactory sense is our most reptilian sense, and it is one of the most powerful because it is linked to our survival.
Throughout our lives, we memorize a library of smells that can stay buried for years. The sense of smell is a sense outside the notion of time/space. Therefore, we can have a reaction linked to the very old memory of a person, a place, a situation when we feel a specific scent that reminds us of this. We can even smell so-called “ghost” smells just by reliving this memory. In a fragment of a second we travel in time and in an emotion that we thought had been forgotten.
Smell: a Mental Representation
For a molecule to become an odor, a brain is needed. According to Pierre-Marie Lledo, co-director of the Genes, Synapses and Cognition laboratory, our brain establishes olfactory maps from the combination of receptors activated by such and such a molecule. These cards work like a kind of QR code and allow each chemical stimulus to be associated with a mental representation: the smell. The latter is malleable and evolves according to our experiences and our culture.
The first thing we perceive in a smell is its emotional side
I either like it or I don't like it, before we even ask ourselves any other rational question. And if odors awaken in us such clear and intense emotions and memories, it is because the brain areas they activate are intimately connected with those mobilized by emotions: the hippocampus plays the role in long-term memory term: the hard disk that records our learning from the moment we were in our mother's womb. The amygdala plays a fundamental role in decoding our emotions generated by the different situations of our life. For example, it intervenes in behaviors such as fear, pleasure, or memory. The septal nucleus plays a role in controlling emotions and in feelings of pleasure, it is directly linked to the sense of smell.
Aromachology, a Global Approach to Smell and Feel
This intrinsic link between smells and emotions has been questioned by many scientists who have tested its benefits. Some, like Dr. Aubert, say they know that certain smells can elicit emotional responses capable of transiently increasing the release of certain brain mediators such as serotonin, which promotes a positive mood and builds a state of well-being. Therefore, aromachology and products composed of natural plant essences have great power on the inner well-being of the person. This approach can be broken down into different types of products: from natural perfumes with an alcoholic or non-alcoholic base, to perfumed creams and balms for the body, to home fragrances, candles and even incense, to hygiene products and natural cosmetics. The market clearly shows that for two years during the pandemic period, the new consumer has been looking for sensory experiences in addition to product efficiency. They want an immersion in Nature which brings them benefits for their well-being.
Beyond the Knowledge of Natural Essences
As a creative perfumer, it is essential to acquire knowledge of the aromachological virtues of natural essences on the psyche since their action on the emotions is proven. This dimension adds to our responsibility as creators towards the consumer. Aromachology stands beyond natural perfumery and a simple pleasant scent and even a trained natural perfumer should be aware of it. Here is how natural essences act by simple olfaction. From their liquid state, by chemical reaction in contact with air, they are transformed into etheric gas. Volatile, by their infinitely small and light molecules, they bring to a quantum level a vibratory frequency which, like the photon, carries information. This information is a natural principle or intelligence of nature which has a function, here in this case properties. Therefore, a natural perfume has a dimension far beyond that of simply “smelling good”; it can be balanced and effective or it can be dissonant because certain raw materials will contradict each other. This olfactory dissonance is often unknown to the natural perfumer but not to the aromachologist. When composing the perfume, we set a clear objective on the result or the effect that is desired. From this, stem the selection of each ingredient that will compose it. Aromachological benefits can be substantiated in marketing materials and product claims. Creating natural perfumes, whatever their final form, requires, in my opinion, a knowledge of aromachology.
Therefore, it seems to me necessary that knowing the olfactory and aromachological qualities of natural essences is essential for a natural perfumer
It is obvious that they must master the sensory dimension and the virtues that their perfume will have on the emotions of the consumer.
You can now learn and deepen your knowledge in the new aromachology course which starts on January 9th. It will be taught every first Monday of every month.
Register for the course
Access to the Aromachology Level 1 Masterclass
SRI KUDARAVALLI, A SUCCESS STORY
Sri Kudaravalli's Interview by Françoise Rapp
What inspired you to become a perfumer?
The joy of delightful smells and a good nose. To express myself in a different language. Speaking through perfumes as perfumes can replace words. When created from love with intention, attention and the right ingredients, perfumes have the power to impact a person in a positive way.
How did you start? What courses have you followed?
I started reading first - books, online. Then I talked to some Indian perfumers and gained more knowledge. Later I came across the Natural Perfumery Teacher’s Academy online courses for French style natural perfumery. I really like how the curriculum is structured. It is obvious that a lot of thought went into designing the courses. It’s a full spectrum curriculum that includes - gardening, oil extraction, perfumery, aromatherapy, perfume history, olfaction to marketing adhering to IPF’s New Luxury Code. They pack a lot of punch in the short format courses and the information is very practical and actionable. The courses broadened my horizons and I picked up a lot of knowledge in a short period of time and was able to design products and create my brand. For anyone wanting to learn natural perfumery, the ancillary information and is environmentally conscious, it's a good place to start. The faculty is friendly, kind, and knowledgeable.
What made you decide to create your brand?
Several factors. As you know, we all went through a very difficult pandemic, the past two years, and many people are still experiencing a deep sense of isolation, fear and uncertainty. I asked myself what would be the role of a perfumer? How can I contribute? How can one help restore some sense of well-being?
In this context, I would like to quote an ancient perfumer from India - Gangadhara, 1500 years ago, said:
“The final goal of perfumery is to infuse semi-divinity within us and elevate our mind by freeing it from the mundane worries of the world."
So, I feel as perfumers we have a certain responsibility to help people cope with everyday post-pandemic life, and it was in that spirit, Xila Apothic, was created.
To me a brand is not just about selling products. It's about what you stand for.
Xila Apothic is not just about perfumes - it introduces people to a way of life. Brand is a unique expression of you - your values, belief system, culture, a community of people with shared interests and rituals. It is a way of self-expression.
What made you participate in the New Luxury Awards competition?
I wanted to challenge myself. I think taking action is key to success. Entering a competition forces you think through things and paves way for smart and hard work. It stretches you and nudges you out of your comfort zone. In the process, you discover new facets of yourself and your strengths.
What was your feeling when you came to Paris and received the New Luxury Award?
It was very gratifying. A validation that belief in one-self and focused hard work pay off. I would like to thank Creezy Courtoy, IPF Chair, for creating this platform to showcase our talent and for encouraging natural perfumers. I would also like to thank the faculty at the Natural Perfumery Teacher's Academy for their guidance.
What has happened to you since this?
New opportunities are knocking on my doors, including investors and clients.
We are launching a new product line for the upcoming festive holiday season starting from September 2022, besides what is already available.
Social Media: @XilaApothic
By Creezy Courtoy, IPF Founder and Chair,
Anthropologist, Historian and Olfaction Trainer
No Sense is More Important than the Olfactory Sense!
I really want you to understand that a perfume is not only a smell, it is much more than that and everyone should really know this before learning to become an olfaction trainer, an aromatherapist or a perfumer.
When you smell a perfume:
-going through your brain, it creates memories and sensations.
-it has an action on your nervous system, regulating organs.
-it is also a gas and what we breathe has immediate access to our blood. While penetrating through the thin membranes of our lungs, fragrances and perfumes reach the bloodstream much more quickly than the absorption of matter by the digestive tracts.
-it influences your hormonal system
-it acts on your organs through your nervous system
-in the bloodstream, it participates to the irrigation of your organs
-it can also modify your DNA and your cell's organization
Digestion and the breaking down of solids, like medicinal pills, take much more time reaching the bloodstream, as the absorbed solids must be digested and pass through the thick intestinal wall.
These are the reasons making a perfume or blending essential oils has responsibilities.
When you teach olfaction training, when you train yourselves, when you create natural perfumes or when you blend essential oils, always study the particularity of the oils. Do not use products without knowing their origins.
Olfaction can be dangerous. With essential oils, you can always find data and talk to the person in front of you.
With synthetic substances you have no historical data like we have for flowers and plants. Natural Perfumes are more expensive but it is worth to consider !
Perfume, by simple olfaction, sends messages to the nervous system, especially, to the area called "the big sympathetic" which plays a very important role in the maintenance of the health balance of humans.
The nervous system is the supreme organizer of matter, where life emanates. Its actions spread to all the organs where it regulates the different functions to achieve this harmonious whole that is the human body.
Besides, it assures the defense of the organism in protecting the body from external attacks.
”The big sympathetic” is made of a double chain of joint ganglia, situated at each side of the backbone. From these ganglia emerge many nerve connections terminating at the vegetative life organs: liver, spleen, lungs, heart, blood vessels, etc.
In some regions of the body nerves also form real networks, and insure the communication of the big sympathetic with the central nervous system.
The nervous system presides in exchanges, warns of failings, provides the various organ needs and rescues those that are threatened.
It directs the natural defenders: the white blood cells or leukocytes, also called phagocytes.
The stronger the microbial attack the stronger the defense.
Different conditions, by their suddenness or duration, can cause an abrupt disruption in the balance of the nervous system and also on the entire organism. A failing nervous system can occur in different ways: tiredness, insomnia, unaccustomed emotional stress, sudden weight loss, or an uncharacteristic tendency to exaggerate or discourage. If, at this moment, a bacterial attack occurs, the nervous system would not have the necessary strength to fight it.
Within the nervous system is the autonomic nervous system, which then contains the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
These two systems are involuntarily, meaning our body does not have control over what it is being performed.
The sympathetic nervous system is known as “fight-or-flight”, while parasympathetic is known as “rest and digest”.
Even though they are different, these systems still work hand in hand with one another to help control the way our body works.
Sympathetic is almost like an alarm clock, as it arouses the body and stimulates the nerves to start working. On the other hand, parasympathetic helps calm the body down, as it brings the body back to its normal state.
Natural essential oils can rebalance your nervous system, therefore it is important to learn aromatherapy and olfaction training before learning natural perfumery.
If you want to learn more about the importance of your olfactory sense, if you want to learn how to train, preserve or restore your olfactory sense, enrol for Creezy Courtoy's 8 weeks Olfaction Course.
By Terry JOHNSON, IPF US Chairman,
New Luxury Business and Marketing Expert
This article was written for retailers. By retailer, I mean a business that sells to consumers, and I am addressing those retailers who want to significantly grow their sales and profits to consumers despite the difficulties we are facing.
An important part of a retailer’s business plan should be properly forecasting future sales and profits. This not easy in the current economy, yet it is vital to surviving in today’s Natural Essences retail environment.
For instance, if you are not forecasting sales increases well in excess of 10%, you will not be growing your business or perhaps even be going backwards simply because inflation will keep increasing costs on everything, including bottles, labels, and ingredients, shipping, insurance, legal, and accounting services.
Improving sales forecasting is sometimes far too low on the list of priorities for retailers, but for a small business competing against very large companies in a turbulent market, proper sales forecasting depends on continually improving your marketing strategies and your supply chain relationships as well.
1. Marketing Strategies
2. Supply Chain Relationships
Learn more about business and marketing in the natural perfumery environment by enrolling to Terry's 6 weeks intensive Business and Marketing Course starting on February 14.